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Posts Tagged ‘Green flowers’

When I was going to for Horticultural training the thing I missed the most was walking in the woods like I could do at Home. I had come from a rural area to a verge large city to go to school and going for a walk was a way to relieve tension from my studies. There was a small park at the end of my street which was undeveloped and I would visit there and find new(to me) plants which where native to the area. One plant I came across looked kind of familiar, like a Heuchera but different, as it turns out it was a close relative. Tellima grandiflora (Fringe Cups) is related to several well-known garden plants and should be seen more in gardens.

Tellima grandiflora (Fringe Cups) are found edging a shade path in Beacon Hill Park.

Tellima grandiflora (Fringe Cups) are found edging a shade path in Beacon Hill Park.

I always am interested in what the botanical latin name of a plant means and how it might relate to it. In the case of Tellima it turns out to be an anagram of another plant which is closely related to it: Mitella. I have found no information on why an anagram was chosen for its name. Another case I know of is for a species of cactus Lobivia which is an anagram of the country which it is found in Bolivia. Grandiflora is not at all unusual and refers to the large flowers.

The common name 'Fringe Cups' refers to the lacy petals of Tellima grandiflora flowers.

The common name 'Fringe Cups' refers to the lacy petals of Tellima grandiflora flowers.

Tellima grandiflora is a plant which grows in the woodlands and dappled light of the Pacific North-west from Alaska through British Columbia, Washington, Oregon into Northern California. This is generally a plant of coastal areas and along the mountains that run just inland. They are also found in the inland wet stripe running through eastern B.C., Washington, north Idaho and Montana. Here on Vancouver Island it is a common site along roadsides and is often mixed with other plants such as Tiarellas, Sedges and Ferns.

Here at U.B.C. Botanical Gardens the Tellima grandiflora grow wild as a natural groundcover in the Asian Garden.

Here at U.B.C. Botanical Gardens the Tellima grandiflora grow wild as a natural groundcover in the Asian Garden.

Tellima grandiflora comes from the Saxifragaeae which has given us many familiar garden plants such as Saxifraga, Heucheras, Tiarella and Fragaria (Strawberry). All of these species have been hybridized and are well used in the garden. Tellima grandiflora may have been hampered in its acceptance because it is a is the only species of the genus and is not represented in any other form in the world. There are records of crosses between Tiarella and Tellima being found as well as that of Tolmeia menziesii crosses but none of these have been seen as worth being developed as they have much smaller flowers than Fringe Cups and the foliage is not unique enough. Only recently has been offered a named Tellima grandiflora ‘Forest Frost’ which to me looks like it probably is mis-named and is fact a cross with a Heuchera. It will be interesting to see what comes of this new plant.

 Winter coloring of Tellima grandiflora often brings out burgundy tones which fade with new growth.

Winter coloring of Tellima grandiflora often brings out burgundy tones which fade with new growth.

Tellima grandiflora for the most part is a well-behaved garden plant. It self-sows in place that it is happy, if this is not wanted all that is needed is to remove the spent flower wands soon after they finnish blooming. It can be somewhat short-lived like many members of the Saxifragaeae family are, therefore i usually keep a few seedlings about to replenish older plants and I like how they will pop up in my pots of Hostas and amongst the hardy Geraniums. Fringe Cups make a good addition to the garden and its foliage and flowers work well in spring when other plants are slow to emerge.

This accidental combination of Meconopsis cambrica, Tellima grandiflora and Claytonia sibirica is charming and bright at the same time.

This accidental combination of Meconopsis cambrica, Tellima grandiflora and Claytonia sibirica is charming and bright at the same time.

Tellima grandiflora is an easy adaptable plant to have in your garden. It like rich, humusy soil which retains moisture well during the dry months of summer. It like dappled positions and will bloom admirably in more shady situations. In overly sunny sites it often has more yellowed foliage and is smaller in its overall stature. This last winter was colder than usual and Fringe Cups came through in great form, no damage is done to the foliage and steady growth is seen in the earliest spring. These plants are typically 60 cm.(2 ft.) high and 45 cm. (18 in.) wide but may be slightly large or smaller depending on conditions. They are rated as tolerating -20c.(-4 f.) which is suspect is with much snow cover. Here the extreme cold might get to be – 15 c. (5 f.) with the wild chill added and they do not suffer.

Tellima grandiflora is incorporated into several gardens at Government House in Victoria. Here it is the Cutting Flower Garden.

Tellima grandiflora is incorporated into several gardens at Government House in Victoria. Here it is the Cutting Flower Garden.

Fringe Cups can be used in a variety of ways in the garden. I have seen them used as accents, mass planted, in woodland and more formal settings. They fit into fragrant gardens and ones for cut flowers as well as shade and winter gardens. They also make an excellent mass planting  and blend in well with many damp tolerant plants. their delicate flowers on tall stems have an amusing effect against very bold foliage. These plants are much better known in Europe than they are here and we should start changing that.

T is for Tellima:

Rainyside has a good page: http://www.rainyside.com/features/plant_gallery/nativeplants/Tellima_grandiflora.html

In case you are wondering about anagrams:  http://www.anagramsite.com/cgi-bin/getanagram.cgi

Washington Native Plant Society page on Tellima: http://www.wnps.org/plants/tellima_grandiflora.html

…………..See you on the trails leading here soon………..

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When I was going to horticulture school we learned mostly practical plants, not many where exotic or unusual. This is perfectly locical as we were going to be the designers and sellers of materials for people who did not know what was best for their yards. As I learned the trees and shrubs I would travel up and down the streets and avenues in the area I lived looking for new specimens I was learning. One winter day I went out and was walking along a school edge and admiring the symmetry of the tree species which was planted along the property edge, all of a sudden I realized this was a row of Tulip Trees(Liriodendron tulipifera)  which I found so appealing. I then had a new appreciation for the tree and why it was selected for us to learn about.

The typical shape of a Tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) leave is seen here decked out in fabulous fall color.

The typical shape of a Tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) leave is seen here decked out in fabulous fall color.

The Liriodendron species is very old, in fact it dates back to the Cretaceous era. This era was 145.5 to 65 million years ago.  At that time Liriodendrons grew in across the northern hemisphere. It is believed that the last ice age  Liriodendrons retreated into to two area, eastern North America(L. tulipifera) and China(L. chinense) and developed into 2 distinct species that we know today. Liriodendron tulipifera now grows in eastern North America from Florida to southern Ontario and west into parts of Texas and Missouri and Iowa. It is in the Great Smoky Mountains along the Tennessee , North Carolina state borders were it grows its best.

There are many Tulip Trees throughout  Victoria, these trees are along the Heywood St. entrance in Beacon Hill Park.

There are many Tulip Trees throughout Victoria, these trees are along the Heywood St. entrance in Beacon Hill Park.

The name Tulip tree is something of a puzzle, people wonder if it refers to the tulip- like leaves or the flowers.  In botanical latin Liriodendron refers to ‘greek’ Leirion meaning a lily and ‘dendron’ meaning a tree. Liriodendron= a ‘lily tree’. Then we add tulipafera or’tulipa’ the latin name for the Tulip flower. Liriodendron(lily tree) + tulipifera(Tulip) = Tulip Lily flowered Tree.  Although the leaves do look like tulips in their own way , it is the rarely seen flowers which are high up in the tree which are refered to. The flowers of this species are very primitive and are formed in a spiral of pistils and stamens in a conical receptacle. Surrounding the conical form are 9 narrow sepals which take the place of petals and on the inside of these is an orange stripe.

The unusual pale green 'Tulip Tree' flowers ishigh in the tree and often not easily seen.

The unusual pale green 'Tulip Tree' flowers is high in the tree and often not easily seen.

Tulip Trees are the largest broad-leaved trees in eastern North America and the wood they provide is a very good quality hardwood. Other common names they go by is Tulip or Yellow Poplar or even Yellow Wood. The wood quality is hard, finely grained and taking a high polish, this is why it is used for such things as furniture, veneers and paneling and toys. The first use of this wood was for dugout canoes made by the native  people who found the huge trunk size useful for the purpose.

Massive Tulip Trees are an important source of lumber in Eastern North America.

Massive Tulip Trees are an important source of lumber in Eastern North America.

Liriodendron tulipifera can grow to about 42-50m(150-165ft) in an urban situation which makes their placement difficult in most small garden plots. Tulip trees are really best for large lawns or park-like settings. They are excellent trees for boulevards and other street tree settings.  They have the added attraction of being fairly pest and disease free, I never see leaf damage on these trees around here. Another bonus is the beautiful golden and brass shades seen in the autumn as these trees shed their leaves in autumn.

The Attractive autumn color of the Tulip Trees line this walk at St Ann's Academy in Victoria.

The Attractive autumn color of the Tulip Trees line this walk at St Ann's Academy in Victoria.

Liriodendron tulipifera is an ancient tree but is easy to grow.  It grows best in full sun or  light shade in the hotter, drier parts of North America. It likes deep, rich, slightly acidic soil which does not dry out during hot spells in summer and fall. They have fleshy roots which are poorly branched and probably brittle therefore care must be taken when planting beneath them when they are young.  These trees tolerate -25c(-20f) or zones 5 through 9.

The conical arrangement of the Tulip Tree seed-head falls apart to reveal single-seeded samaras.

The conical arrangement of the Tulip Tree seed-head falls apart to reveal single-seeded samara.

Propagation of Liriodendron tulipifera is easily done by seed or grafting for the more attractive forms. There are at least 2  very attractive variegated forms. Other forms are fastigate or have more unusual growth habits.

The furrowed bark of Liriodendron tulipifera is attractive and easily recogonizable.

The furrowed bark of Liriodendron tulipifera is attractive and easily recogonizable.

Trailing Tulip Trees:

Some great pictures of the elusive flowers: http://ontariotrees.com/mondaygarden/article.php?id=0095

Always a good source of plant information: http://www.hort.uconn.edu/plants/l/lirtul/lirtul1.html

Wikis’ page on Tulip Trees: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liriodendron_tulipifera

Until we meet again here….

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The first time I was introduced to todays plant I really did not appreciate its sublime beauty. It was at I time when I knew to gardening in this  mild  west coast climate which was like coming to a treasure trove of exotic from the plant desert i had lived in.  The plant in question was in the ‘white garden found in Park and Tilford Gardens where I was doing my practicum over the summer months. With experience I have learned big and bright are not always the most easy to work with in designing gardens whereas sublime and subtle are often the key to the best. Astrantias major (Masterwort) are delicate and sublime at the same time while being outstanding garden plants which deserve to be included in many more gardens.

Astrantia major, or Masterwort  has slight variations in  shades of color and flower size.

Astrantia major, or Masterwort has slight variations in shades of color and flower size.

Astrantias have long been known to gardens in Europe where they grow amongst the alpine meadows in the mountains of Austria through the Swiss Alps, and  into the Pyrenees of north-west Spain.  There at the  high elevations and they bloom from July into September.  (Great) Masterwort is first noted by English herbalist John Gerard(1545-1611-12?) in 1596 in his famous  publication ‘Great Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes’. In this book he wrote a detailed description of all the herbal plants which he had collected and grew at his garden in Holborn.

Frothy Astrantia major blooming with Alchemilla mollis make a beautiful floral display in this dappled spot.

Frothy Astrantia major blooming with Alchemilla mollis make a beautiful floral display in this dappled spot.

Astrantia are without a doubt are recently being discovered by gardeners here in North America. I was lucky that many years ago to have experience them in the ‘white garden’  as I did not see them again until I came to Vancouver Island and worked as a grower at a nursery here. There I soon found that there were several color forms from dark red through pinks and creams. My favorite Masterwort was one called “Shaggy’ which has a large deeply toothed bracts which are green tipped on cream, it is sometimes sold as ‘Margery Fish’ and should only be propagated by division.

The tiny fertile flowers of Astrantia major are found in the middle of the papery green tipped bracts.

The tiny fertile flowers of Astrantia major are found in the middle of the papery green tipped bracts.

Astrantias are now used in many types of gardens as they are extremely versatile.  Margery Fish, the influential English Cottage Gardener recognized their charm, as have many of the well know garden writers and designers of today.  You can use Masterwort in full sun or nearly  complete shade and still get a respectable showing of flowers. the flowers are extremely long-lasting because they are papery and dry quite well, this guarantee that they make their way into florist shops for their work. The leaves are clean and attractive.

One of  the many red forms of Astrantia major which are available now.

One of the many red forms of Astrantia major which are available now.

Growing Masterwort is fairly easy as long as you remember a few important things. Astrantias like rich fertile soil which has the ability to retain some moisture during dry periods, these plants sulk if they get too dried out. They will flower best in full sun as long as there is sufficient water available.These are plants which do not like to have their roots disturbed  therefore care must be taken when moving or dividing them, they can be slow to bounce back and patience is needed.  To get a prolonged  and repeat bloom remove spent flowers promptly, this will keep the plant vigorous.

Atrantia major will have a second flush of blooms after the first spent flowers are removed.

Atrantia major will have a second flush of blooms after the first spent flowers are removed.

To increase Masterwort you can do it in several ways by division or by growing them from seed. Division is done in the fall or spring when Astrantias are still dormant every 3 to 4 years. Division is the only way to increase your named varieties and keep them true to form and color. Seed may collected and germinates naturally on site if the plants are happy or you can do it yourself. The seed is multi-cycle dormant and I used a refrigerator to artificially speed up the process. Plants from seed will take several years to bloom using this method.

Astrantia 'Sunnidale Variegated' has some of the most attractive of all variegated plants.

Astrantia 'Sunnidale Variegated' has some of the most attractive of all variegated plants.

Before putting your Astrantias to bed in the late fall give them a side dressing of mulch and this will help them grow strong roots over the winter. Masterwort are listed as taking -20c(-4f) or zones 5 through 9.  These are tidy plant which for slowly spreading clumps of  30-60cm(1-2ft) wide. Hieght of the plants varies from 30-90cm (12-36in) high at the most, most are around 60cm(2ft) tall. New varieties are being introduced, the darkest red so far is ‘Hadspen Blood’, ‘Shaggy is said to have the largest flowers. Another Astrantia you can grow is Astrantia maxima which has pinker flowers with thicker bracts.

Here in the 'Cutting Garden' at Government House, the Astrantias are used as an informal groundcover.

Here in the 'Cutting Garden' at Government House, the Astrantias are used as an informal groundcover.

Use Astrantias in your perennial border, shade garden, woodland areas, informal areas, cut flower garden or butterfly and bee garden. Masterwort mixes well with many plants from Ferns to Rodgersia as well as Hostas, Heuchera, Tellima and Tiarellas and many others.

Mastering Astrantias:

Paghat is always a good place to start: http://www.paghat.com/masterwort.html

Astrantia ‘Shaggy’: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/gardening/3319801/How-to-grow-Astrantia-Shaggy.html

John Gerard, and one of the first important descriptive garden books: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Gerard

Until we meet again soon on this leafy path….

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