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Posts Tagged ‘fragrant plants’

We I was small we would visit my grandmother(my father’s mother) in Williams Lake which was closer than my other grand parents. She came from Scotland and had an accent any many things from her family at her home. She also special scented soaps and that scent I now always associate with her. The soap was Lavender scented (from Yardley) and I still love that fragance. Here in Victoria we are able to grow that most famous of aromatic plants in many forms. The Lavender plant which most reminds me of the soap in its scent is Lavandula angustifolia ‘Hidcote’ (Hidcote Lavender).

'Hidcote' Lavender Lavendula angustifolia 'Hidcote' has the fragrance that most reminds me of my grandmother.

'Hidcote' Lavender Lavendula angustifolia 'Hidcote' has the fragrance that most reminds me of my grandmother.

Lavenders are plants which originate form the mountainous areas of France and Italy and Spain. The numerous species of plants have been used for millennial for fragrance, medicinal, herbal and culinary purposes. Different Lavenders have slightly different scents, some are more resinous(pine scented) while others are are less potent and kind of dusty (almost musty). What we think of as ‘true’ English Lavender scent is Lavandula angustifolia with bright flower that are dried for sachets stuffing pillows,  used in oils lotions, soaps and pomanders. The scent is said to be calming and is used that way in herbal medicine. The flowers have many culinary uses from sweets to teas and inclusion in meat dishes and other savory foods.

Hidcote lavender is included in this herb garden.

Hidcote lavender is included in this herb garden.

Hidcote lavender is a true English Lavender selection( selected in 1950) which is named after the world-famous  garden at Hidcote Manor near Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire.  Hidecote Manor was an estate whose gardens were developed by Lawrence Johnson (1871-1958). Johnson was born in France to an American father who was a wealthy stockbroker. Lawrence Johnson has nor formal horticulture training but was extremely artistically talented. Lawrence when to Cambridge and graduated with a degree in history from Trinity College and later joined the British army fought in the Boer War and World War 1. In 1907 his mother bought Hidcote and he went to live with her in the 200 acre estate.

A contemporary west coast drought tolerant garden with Hidcote Lavender as one of the feature plants.

A contemporary west coast drought tolerant garden with Hidcote Lavender as one of the feature plants.

For the next 41 years Lawrence developed 10 acres into a magnificent series of garden rooms each with its own surprises and unique features.  he was much influenced by Gertrude Jekyll the Arts and Crafts movement which was primarily located in Great Britain.  The gardens of Hidcote were seen as being so important that the National Trust selected them for their first example of gardens to include in their collection of places of cultural heritage. 150,000 people visit the Hidcote gardens every year to learn and get inspiration from them.

A modern use of Hidcote Lavender(Lavanduala angustifolia 'Hidcote') seen in this garden at Parkside Victoria.

A modern use of Hidcote Lavender(Lavandula angustifolia 'Hidcote') seen in this garden at Parkside Victoria.

Most lavenders grow well on Vancouver Island even though we have much more rain that would occur where they originate, drainage is important. Here in Victoria most gardens are on top of a layer of clay and fine sand which means placing any Lavender is tricky. Hidcote Lavender seems to do the best of all the different species which are grown here as it is quite hardy and will take more moisture that some others which will regularly die or be severely damaged during colder winter here.

Hidcote Lavender is just one of the massed plantings used to create color throughout the year on the main street through Brentwood Bay.

Hidcote Lavender is just one of the massed plantings used to create color throughout the year on the main street through Brentwood Bay.

Growing Hidcote Lavender is easy in the right place. You need full sun and well-drained soil especially in wetter climates. The best plantings I have seen are completely exposed to the elements such as those in the Terraced Gardens at Government House. There they grow in rocky niches in soil which probably is not that deep and they will bake in the summer. Although Hidcote Lavender is a shorter dense plant it will do well with a cutting back after the flowers start to fade in color. This will set a flush of new vigorous growth before autumn dormancy will set in. Hidcote lavender grows up to  30-45 cm. (12-18 in.) tall and about as wide. It is  rated at tolerating -34 c.(-30 f.) or zone 4.

Here Hidcote Lavender is tucked in with Heaths, Heathers and small assorted succulents.

Here Hidcote Lavender is tucked in with Heaths, Heathers and small assorted succulents.

Hidcote Lavender can be used in a variety of ways such as in containers, as a formal or informal edging for paths, drought tolerant garden, deer or rabbit resistant garden, mass plantings or specimen plantings, as an accent, in herbal and fragrance gardens or collections.  True Hidcote Lavender is propagated by cuttings but what you get in most garden shops is a Hidcote strain of seed grown plants which generally are very uniform in their growth, color and size. This is an excellent seed strain.

Many forms of Lavandula angustifolia:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lavandula_angustifolia

Hidcote Manor:http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/w-vh/w-visits/w-findaplace/w-hidcote.htm

Lawrence Johnson:http://www.countrylife.co.uk/gardens/article/473685/Great-British-garden-makers-Lawrence-Johnston-1871-1958.html

 

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When I was in Horticulture school we learned many plants ranging from small ground covers, larger shrubs and finally to the majestic trees. Some of these plants are very overused while others are not seen enough, it all depends on how well known and in fashion they are.  One tree I learned is much more common in Vancouver than it is in Victoria and that truly is a pity. What I am referring to is the ‘Katsura’ tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum) which has many features that it should be on most peoples lists of ‘must have’ trees.

Cercidiphyllum japonicum or 'Katsura Trees' on a rainy spring day in Vancouver.

Cercidiphyllum japonicum or 'Katsura Trees' on a rainy spring day in Vancouver.

At one time, long ago, Cercidiphyllum japonicum grew wild in a much larger area. Fossil records show Katsura trees lived in Europe and western North America during the Miocene Epoch 5 to 23 million years ago. Now They are found only in Japan and China. They are found in south central China,  particularly in north west Szechwan province where E.H. Wilson found forests of them in 1907. The trees found in China were considered to be a variety Cercidiphyllum japonicum var. sinense at one time and were said to be more tree-like.  In Japan they are found at valley bottoms where the soil is richer and there is more rainfall which these trees need.

The attractively shaped leaves is one of the most appealing aspects of 'Katsura' trees

The attractively shaped leaves is one of the most appealing aspects of 'Katsura' trees

Cercidiphyllum japonicum was introduced into cultivation in a most unusual way. Thomas Hogg  Jr(1819-1892) who owned a plant nursery with his brother James. He was appointed a U.S. Marshal by President Abraham Lincoln in 1862 and was then assigned to a diplomatic mission to Japan. While he was there, Thomas sent seeds of Cercidiphyllum japonicum to his brother  in 1865. His brther germinated them. Thomas was in Japan 10 years and also introduced several other well known plants;  Hosta ‘Thomas Hogg’  now called H. undulata var. albomarginata is probably the most famous.

Typical fall color of Cericidiphyllum japonicum found in the perennial border at Playfair park in Saanich.

Typical fall color of Cericidiphyllum japonicum found in the perennial border at Playfair park in Saanich.

Katsura trees tend to be multi trunked specimens which have strongly ascending branches. The leaves are relatively small and delicate compared to what the trunk and branches can become when these trees become more massive with age. It is intersting to note that these trees are also somewhat unusual in that they are dioecious meaning they are male or female plants.

A massive trunk of a Cercidiphyllum japonicum found in Beaconhill Park in Victoria.

A massive trunk of a Cercidiphyllum japonicum found in Beaconhill Park in Victoria.

In an ideal world Katsura trees grow to be enormous, Wilson found forests of trees with trunks of 2(6cm) and 3ft(90cm) widths and had regrown from their original stumps after the original trees had been harvest.  The largest one he noted was a remnant of a 17.5ft(5.33m) wide stump base. In the wild these trees can attain a height of 100ft(30m), but about half this in garden settings.  These trees are the most important source of wood  in Japan, and is used extensively for cabinetry and paneling there.

The color range of Cercidiphyllum japonicum ranges from crystal clear yellows through oranges and crimsons into plums as seen here.

The color range of Cercidiphyllum japonicum ranges from crystal clear yellows through oranges and crimsons into plums as seen here.

As autumn approaches Katsura trees put on a display for the senses, visually they are stunning with a color range few trees can achieve. On any day you will feast your eyes on shades of clear yellow, butter, many shades of peach and apricot, and into more striking crimsons and plums. You will notice they give of a pleasant odor as the leaves turn color, some describe it as ‘honey like’ and others say it has more of a’caramel’ or ‘brown sugar’ quality. How ever you explain it, it is a pleasant surprise which many people look forward to every year.

The striking golden tones of a happy Katsura tree changing color in the fall.

The striking golden tones of a happy Katsura tree changing color in the fall.

Cercidiphyllum japonicum is almost a perfect tree. It is very pest free and adaptive to most locations. In a garden setting it will grow to about 50ft(15m) tall which will fit in nicely to many landscapes. It makes an excellent multi stemmed residential, commercial, golf course or park tree. One thing you must keep in mind when placing it is having an adequate supply of water during the dry months.  Plant them in deep, rich, well drained soil. They need full sun to look their best.  This tree tolerates temperature down to 20f(29c). Newly emerging leaves can be damaged by late frosts.  there are several forms now on the market worth looking into if you are interested. the weeping forms are very attractive in the right location.

The same Cercidiphyllum japonicum in summer and fall. The corner planting along Quadra and Fairfield in Victoria.

The same Cercidiphyllum japonicum tree in summer and fall. The corner planting along Quadra and Fairfield in Victoria.

More on Cercidiphyllum japonicum:

Excellent summation of  Katsura trees: http://www.arhomeandgarden.org/plantoftheweek/articles/katsura_tree_11-2-07.htm

A very complete listing of important plant people, scroll down to Hogg: http://www.plantsgalore.com/people/plant-people-H.htm

Wiki’s listing of the famous Katsura tree and relatives: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cercidiphyllum

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At this time of year we are often overwhelmed by what is going on in the garden. Things are bursting with color, while others are unfurling delicately. All of a sudden the fence which we drove past for the last year is covered with blooms again, what can it be the climbs 30ft into that conifer that I see? Ahh yes, it is the delicate yet so,so rampant Clematis montana (Anemone Clematis) in bloom again.

Clematis Montana 'Tetrarose' Known as the Anemone Clematis

Clematis Montana Known as the Anemone Clematis

Anemone Clematis is well named as far as the flower is concerned. It is named because the flower is very reminiscent of the Japanese Anemone which blooms in the fall. this Clematis has the same color range, petal structure and delicate fragrance which some describe as Vanilla-like. It is not surprising in that both the Clematis and Anemone are from the same family, the Rununculus(Ranunculaceae)  or Buttercup family.

Clematis montana 'Tetrarose' flowers are similar to Japanese Anemone's

Clematis montana 'Tetrarose' flowers are similar to Japanese Anemone's

Clematis montana does indeed come from a mountainous part of the world,  starting in Afghanistan  and moving through  the Himalayan region  east into Hubei province of China. It has been with us for quite a long time having been discovered in the 1818 in Nepal.  It was introduced into the garden by Lady Amherst around 1831. E.H. Wilson(Chinese Wilson) introduced the first pink variety Clematis montana ‘rubens’ which is from China and has lovely purple flushed foliage. More recently new developments have brought us more types, deeper petal colors and even a double or two.

Beautiful Large Petalled Clematis montana f. grandiflora.

Beautiful Large Petalled Clematis montana f. grandiflora.

It is hard not to be charmed by these delicate blooms of Anemone Clematis, especially when they are on a young plant which has not grown woody and wild.   This will pass if it is placed in the wrong spot and starts to overtake a more weaker growing neighbor or house.

Clematis montana Gradually Overtaking This Unsuspecting House!

Clematis montana Gradually Overtaking This Unsuspecting House!

We learn that the Latin meaning of  ‘klema’ is climbing, and that is just what this plant does with glee. These Anemone Clematis can grow to 25-30ft(8-10m) in length and are very tough and tolerant of poor conditions. The only requirements are a cool spot for the for the roots, as much sun as possible for a good crop of flowers every year and lots of water in the spring growing  season. One important thing to remember in placement of the plant is they do not like their roots to be disturbed, so once planted you should not try to move it to another location.

The Interesting Clematis montana 'Broughton Star', a Dark Double.

The Interesting Clematis montana 'Broughton Star', a Dark Double.

Clematis montana can take pruning, as it gets out of control or shaggy. Pruning is best done after it blooms and can be quite severe, I have seen plants that have been cut right down, this keeps them from getting too tall and woody, the foliage will stay where you can appreciate it more. Anemone Clematis are zone 6(-15c or 10f.)

The Beautiful and Delicately colored Clematis montana 'Mayleen'

The Beautiful and Delicately colored Clematis montana 'Mayleen'

Links to This Plant:

The national collection of Clematis montana:  http://www.clematismontana.co.uk/

Growing and placement of Anemone Clematis: http://www.gardenaction.co.uk/plantfinder/clematis_1.asp

A site devoted to all forms of Clematis: http://www.clematis.com/html-docs/homepage.html

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