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Posts Tagged ‘Forsythia’

When I first started horticulture school many years ago it was autumn and the leaves where changing color.  The trees and shrubs we were leaning were all new to me and often did not impress me too much in ragged end of year state. As the season progressed into winter I learned to appreciate the form and shape of the simple things like tree structure, bark and buds and the often subtle differences between closely related species. The spring brought new hope of reawakening in the city which was my new classroom, those buds expanded and soon the earliest flowers were blooming. All around was color, especially yellow and the most vibrant of all were the Golden Bells or Common Forsythia (Forsythia x intermedia).

 Forsythis x intermedia is one of the brightest shrubsto bloom at any time of the year.

Forsythis x intermedia is one of the brightest shrubsto bloom at any time of the year.


Forsythias like so many plants comes from the vast area of eastern Asia. There are 11 known species with only 1 which originates from Europe.The most important species in horticulture are Forsythia suspensa, viridissima, ovata and japonica. From this group the suspensa x  viridissima which is known as F. x intermedia is the most important and has contributed a number of well known garden plants.
 Although the flowers of Forsythia x intermedia are small, there are thoousands which coat the branches.

Although the flowers of Forsythia x intermedia are small, there are thoousands which coat the branches.


Forsythia x intermedia is a cross of 2 species(suspensa x viridissima) which originate in China. The first species seen and written about was F. suspensa (Weeping Forsythia) which was seen by Carl Peter Thunberg in Japan where he was posted in 1784. At that time he thought it was a form of Lilac (Syringa) and called it Syringa suspensa. An interesting factoid is that Lilacs and Forsythia are in the same family as Olives (Oleaceae).  This species brings a drooping habit to its branches and has rambling/suckering growth.

The 'greenstem' influence of Forsythia viridissima is seen here along with the slightly angular surface. The lenticels (bumps on barks) are typical for the species.

The 'greenstem' influence of Forsythia viridissima is seen here along with the slightly angular surface. The lenticels (bumps on bark) are typical for the species.


The other species in the cross is viridissima which is also from China and was discovered by Robert Fortune  in about 1850. Greenstem Forsythia blooms later than any of the other Forsythia species and has noticeably green, square stems. It is thought the species met in Holland and naturally crossed there but it also just as likely that there are natural crosses found in the wild where the plant species grow in the same areas close together.
The hardy Forsythia x intermedia buds are set in the fall and over-winter tightly before they burst forth into bloom usually in late February around here.

The hardy Forsythia x intermedia buds are set in the fall and over-winter tightly before they burst forth into bloom usually in late February around here.


Forsythia x intermedia are considered to be somewhat out of fashion these days because they are not really a controlled plant. I found it interesting that when I moved here to Victoria that it is hard to find these plants as they are much more common in the Vancouver area where I had been living at. Victoria is an older city  than Vancouver and Forsythia are a very ‘Victorian era’ type of plant and I just assumed in the spring they would show up in the older yards around here.
 A very old Forsythia x intermedia near Commercial Drive in Vancouver.

A very old Forsythia x intermedia near Commercial Drive in Vancouver.


Forsythia x intermedia are easy to grow and will live for many decades in the right place. They take all most any soil as long as it drains well and is not totally clay. They produce the best flowering in full sun but take light shade and give a good flower display. They often grow into dense multi-stemmed shrubs which sucker to expand that gives them a messy appearance. They typically grow up to 3.5 m. (10 ft.) by a similar width. The branches can be seen growing upright or drooping on the same plant. Branches that touch the soil and remain there often will root and produce new growth.  These plants can be severely pruned into shrubs but most of the flowers will be lost, often only seen deep in the plant or on the top.  Free form, informal hedges (less clipped) are beautiful and bright if you have the space.
 Here Forsythia x intermedia is seen with another brightly flowering shrub Pieris 'Valley Valentine'.

Here Forsythia x intermedia is seen with another brightly flowering shrub Pieris 'Valley Valentine'.


Often Forsythia x intermedia is not noticed until it bursts into color in the spring just when we need the bright colors to help us wake up from our winter slumber. It an excellent shrub for early spring color and autumn color as it often shows tinges of madder and plum in its golden foliage. Use Forsythia in mixed borders for early spring color, winter gardens, low maintainance areas, as informal or formal hedges or in heritage gardens. Another favorite use is for forcing the flowers by bringing in branches and letting them open inside.  The best thing might be that it is quite hardy and tolerates -20 c. (-4 f.) and I have seen it growing in much colder places than that with sheltering from harsh north winds. As a side note if you live in a very cold climate look out for Forsythia ‘Northern Gold’ which takes zone 3 (-40 c. or f.).

Following Forsythia:

What People are saying about their plants: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/74859/

One of the best places to look up shrubs and tree and their description: http://www.hort.uconn.edu/plants/f/forint/forint1.html

The Genus Forsythia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forsythia

For you gardeners in the north here is Forsythia ‘North Gold’ http://www.northscaping.com/InfoZone/FS-0038/FS-0038.shtml

…….Hope you follow along with me here……

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This winter has been remarkably hard for plants. It started with a terrible and extreme cold snap in November before many plants had totally hardened off for the winter.  The problem at that time was the cold came before the snow which protects more tender plants. On Wednesday morning I woke up to look out of my bedroom window to see an unexpected snow storm had dumped a large amount of snow. The cold came with winds the next day, but many plants this time are protected with a blanket of snow. By the time the snow stopped for the day there was about 30cm.(1ft.) on the ground.

A surprise morning vision of white put a crimp im my plans for the day.

A surprise morning vision of white put a crimp im my plans for the day.

In the afternoon there was even more snow and I and many others had started to shovel out paths and sidewalks. Trucks were up and down salting streets. The winds had picked up and with the strong breeze can the chill factor overnight. The temperature dipped down to -6 c. (20 f.) but the wind chill was -16 c (3 f.), an all time record for this time of year. With the roads being in dangerous condition I decided to stay at home until Friday afternoon. By that time the melt was on and snow piled high in parking lots.

Damaged Cotoneaster foliage is browned form the cold winter weather.

Damaged Cotoneaster foliage is browned from the cold winter weather.

The piles of snow can take a while to melt and during that time damage the plants that are covered by it. This is particularly true in the large parking lots where snow is not removed and is just pushed out of the way.

I wonder how long it will take to melt this pile of snow?

I wonder how long it will take to melt this pile of snow?

I know this year has been cooler already that last year. The buds on the Climbing Hydrangea by the gate were expanding and I was checking to see if the Forsythia was ready to bloom yet. Last year at this time were well in advance in the garden.

 The same day we got our big snow this year the Forsythia was fully in bloom last year.

The same day we got our big snow this year the Forsythia was fully in bloom last year.

The Annual flower count starts March 1st and lasts until the 7th here every year, it should be a challenge this year to find the billions which are counted every year.Last year they had a record number. There is more inclement weather forecast for tonight and the rest of the week.

 This years famous Victoria Flower Count should be way down from other years.

This years famous Victoria Flower Count should be way down from other years.

I mainly worry about those plants that made through the first cold in November and have now been hit again. The damage to broad-leaved evergreens is especially apparent with many of the larger leaved Rhododendrons looking sad .

 Winter damage on the large leaved Rhododendrons at Finnerty Gardens as seen in January.

Winter damage on the large-leaved Rhododendrons at Finnerty Gardens as seen in January.

The forecast for tonight is possibly more snow and the roads will be slippery in spots for sure. We gardeners are always trying to push the boundaries of what we can grow in our area, here it is more tender and tropical plants people want in gardens. When we have unusually cold snaps like this it reminds us how lucky we are that it does not last for more than a few days at a time.

Counting the Days of Flowers:

Victoria really does have a flower count every year: http://www.flowercount.com/

Victoria snow storm pictures from last week: http://www.howlabit.net/gallery2/main.php?g2_itemId=2575

Victoria during the storm is not safe: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D03rK2sdEeo

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